NOTE: VIEW WITH MONOSPACED FONT
Jan. 28, 1992
GLOSSARY.TXT
GLOSSARY: TRANSLATING MESSAGES FROM ALIENS
NUMBERS:
Numbers are separated by double spaces from words, symbols, or
other numbers.
Numbers consist of a sign bit (+ = positive; o = negative)
followed by a single space and then the number part, which is
simply a binary number, using + for one and o for zero.
Positive six is written + ++o.
Zero is written + o.
Negative six is written o ++o.
In order to show that the aliens themselves use an octal number
system, rather than simply binary, they use powers of 8 in
representing very large or small numbers.
A number can be multiplied by a power of 8, in which case the
binary number is followed by a double space, a multiplication
sign (++), a double space, 8 (+ +ooo), a double space, the "to
the power of" sign (+++), a double space, and the exponent, which
consists of the sign bit of the exponent, a single space, and the
binary number of the exponent.
1,073,741,824 (decimal number) = 8^10 is written as
+ +ooo +++ + +o+o
1/1,073,741,824 = 1/8^10 = 8^-10 is written as
+ +ooo +++ o +o+o
Positive 2,147,483,648 (decimal) =
2 x 1,073,741,824 (decimal) = 2 x 8^10 = 2 x 2^31 is
+ +o ++ + +o+o +++ + +o+o
The reciprocal of this number is 1/2,147,483,648 (decimal) =
4.65661287308 x 10^-10 (decimal) = 2^-31 = 4 x 8^-11 is
+ +oo ++ + +o+o +++ o +o++
MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS AND OPERATORS
plus: o+
minus: +o
multiplied by: ++
divided by: oo
to the power: +++
equals: ooo
not equal to: ++o
approximately equal to: o+o
proportional to: +o+
greater than: oo+
less than: +oo
greater than or equal to: oo+ ooo
less than or equal to: +oo ooo
left parenthesis: ooo+
right parenthesis: +ooo
left bracket: oo++
right bracket: ++oo
left curly brace: o+++
right curly brace: +++o
pi: o++o
base of natural logs: +oo+
positive infinity: + oooo
negative infinity: o oooo
UNITS
The aliens use the MKS measurement system. We made this
artificial simplification to save the Human Team a lot of tedious
calculation. The wavelength unit for light, apprnm
(approximately a nanometer), was derived octally by dividing a
meter by 8^10.
radian oooooo
meter +oooo+
apprnm (approximate nanometer) +oo+++
1 apprnm = 1 meter/8^10
= 1 meter/1073741824
= 0.9313 nanometer
1 nanometer = 1.0737 apprnm
kilogram ooooo+
second ++++o+
kelvin degree Kelvin oooo+o
hertz cycle/second oo+++o
m/sec +o++++
m/sec^2 +o+++o
newton kg-m/sec^2 +o+ooo
joule kg-m^2/sec^2 +o++oo
watt kg-m^2/sec^3 +o++o+
coulomb o+oooo
amp coulomb/sec o+ooo+
weber/m^2 oo+o+o
NAMES OF THINGS
Alpha Cent. A o+ooo++
Alpha Cent. B o+ooo+o
Proxima o+oooo+
Sol o+ooooo
Earth o++oooo
Aliens' planet o++oo++
center ooo+ooo
circle ++oooo+
sphere +++ooo+
ellipse ++ooo++
focus oo+o+oo
neutron ++o++
proton +o+++
electron +++o+
VARIABLES
NOTE: Two- and three-part names of variables only have a single
space between the parts.
length (distance) +oooooo
(When describing the distance between two objects, put the
distance symbol between the objects, using single spaces.)
distance of Earth from Sol
Earth distance Sol o++oooo +oooooo o+ooooo
(This is also used to denote 1 AU = 140 x 8^10 meters.
Later usage should restrict its use to the instantaneous
distance of Earth from Sol; define another symbol for 1 AU.)
radius +ooooo+
radius of Sol +ooooo+ o+ooooo
circumference +ooo+o+
area ++ooooo
area of circle ++ooooo ++oooo+
area of sphere ++ooooo +++ooo+
volume +++oooo
volume of sphere +++oooo +++ooo+
eccentricity oo+ooo+
semimajor axis +oooo++
semiminor axis +oooo+o
period ++++oo+
period of Earth about Sol o++oooo ++++oo+ o+ooooo
(Earth period Sol)
mass oooooo+
mass of Sol oooooo+ o+ooooo
luminosity ooooo++
temperature ooooo+o
wavelength +ooo+++
CONSTANTS
gravitational G +o+++++
speed of light c +oo++++
PARTICLE REPRESENTATIONS
up quark o
oo
down quark oo
o
electron oo
oo
INTERACTION REPRESENTATIONS
strong force: ++o++
+ + +
++o++ + + + + ++o++ and +
+ + + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+o+++
electromagnetic: +++ +
+++o+ ++ +++ +++o+ and
+o+++ +o+++ and +o+++
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + and + +
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + + +
+++o+ +++o+ +++o+
both strong and electromagnetic:
+
+ + +++
+o+++ + + + +o+++
+++ + +
+